Heat treatment of steel
Heat treatment refers to a kind of metal hot working process in which materials are heated, insulated and cooled in solid state to obtain the expected structure and properties. There are five main operations in the heat treatment of steel: annealing,normalizing,quenching, tempering, solution treatment, etc.
Annealing: The process of heating the workpiece to a temperature below or above AC1, holding it for a certain time, and then cooling it with the furnace to obtain a balanced structure. Classification: complete annealing, incomplete annealing, spheroidizing annealing, diffusion annealing, recrystallization annealing and stress relief annealing.
The purpose is to make the internal structure of the metal reach or close to the equilibrium state, to obtain good process performance and service performance, or to prepare the structure for further quenching.
Normalizing: the process of heating the steel above AC3 or ACCM and cooling it in the air to obtain fine pearlite after heat preservation.
The effect of normalizing is similar to that of annealing, but the microstructure obtained is finer. It is often used to improve the cutting performance of materials, and sometimes it is used for the final heat treatment of parts with low requirements.
Quenching: after heating the steel to AC1 or AC3 for a certain period of time, the steel is cooled rapidly (usually higher than the critical cooling speed VC) to obtain the heat treatment process of martensite (or lower bainite) structure.
Tempering: reheating the quenched parts to a temperature lower than the critical point A1 for heat preservation is a heat treatment process in which the quenched Yawen structure changes into a stable tempered structure and is cooled to room temperature at a proper cooling rate.
Solution treatment: make all kinds of phases in the alloy fully dissolved, strengthen solid solution and improve toughness and corrosion resistance, eliminate stress and softening, so as to continue processing and forming.
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